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Etymology[ edit ] The term biological diversity was used first by wildlife scientist and conservationist Raymond F. Dasmann in the year lay book A Different Kind of Country  advocating conservation. The term was widely adopted only after more than a decade, when in the s it Swot analysis indian pharmaceutical industry into common usage in science and environmental policy.
Thomas Lovejoyin the foreword to the book Conservation Biology,  introduced the term to the scientific community. Jenkins,  Lovejoy and other leading conservation scientists at the time in America advocated the use of the term "biological diversity".
The term's contracted form biodiversity may have been coined by W. It first appeared in a publication in when sociobiologist E. Wilson used it as the title of the proceedings  of that forum.
A similar term in the United States is "natural heritage. Broader than biodiversity, it includes geology and landforms. Biologists most often define biodiversity as the "totality of genes, species and ecosystems of a region".
An explicit definition consistent with this interpretation was first given in a paper by Bruce A. Wilcox's definition was "Biological diversity is the variety of life forms They study processes such as mutation and gene transfer that drive evolution. However, tetrapod terrestrial vertebrates taxonomic and ecological diversity shows a very close correlation.
Among other factors, the diversity of all living things biota depends on temperature, precipitation, altitude, soilsgeography and the presence of other species.
The study of the spatial distribution of organismsspecies and ecosystemsis the science of biogeography. Diversity consistently measures higher in the tropics and in other localized regions such as the Cape Floristic Region and lower in polar regions generally.
Latitudinal gradients in species diversity Generally, there is an increase in biodiversity from the poles to the tropics. Thus localities at lower latitudes have more species than localities at higher latitudes.
This is often referred to as the latitudinal gradient in species diversity. Several ecological mechanisms may contribute to the gradient, but the ultimate factor behind many of them is the greater mean temperature at the equator compared to that of the poles.
This hypothesis considers temperaturemoistureand net primary production NPP as the main variables of an ecosystem niche and as the axis of the ecological hypervolume.
In this way, it is possible to build fractal hypervolumes, whose fractal dimension rises up to three moving towards the equator.
Hotspots[ edit ] A biodiversity hotspot is a region with a high level of endemic species that have experienced great habitat loss. Brazil 's Atlantic Forest is considered one such hotspot, containing roughly 20, plant species, 1, vertebrates and millions of insects, about half of which occur nowhere else.
Colombia is characterized by high biodiversity, with the highest rate of species by area unit worldwide and it has the largest number of endemics species that are not found naturally anywhere else of any country.
Selection bias amongst researchers may contribute to biased empirical research for modern estimates of biodiversity.I would say that a PMP Certification is highly respected within both IT & non-IT communities where strong project management skills are required.
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