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Translate this page from English Print Page Change Text Size: The first step in this process is understanding the parts of thinking, or elements of reasoning. They are present in the mind whenever we reason. To take command of our thinking, we need to formulate both our purpose and the question at issue clearly.
We need to use information in our thinking that is both relevant to the question we are dealing with, and accurate. We need to make logical inferences based on sound assumptions.
We need to understand our own point of view and fully consider other relevant viewpoints. We need to use concepts justifiably and follow out the implications of decisions we are considering. In this article we focus on two of the elements of reasoning: Learning to distinguish inferences from assumptions is an important intellectual skill.
Many confuse the two elements. Let us begin with a review of the basic meanings: If you come at me with a knife in your hand, I probably would infer that you mean to do me harm.
Inferences can be accurate or inaccurate, logical or illogical, justified or unjustified. An assumption is something we take for granted or presuppose. Usually it is something we previously learned and do not question.
It is part of our system of beliefs. We assume our beliefs to be true and use them to interpret the world about us. If we believe that it is dangerous to walk late at night in big cities and we are staying in Chicago, we will infer that it is dangerous to go for a walk late at night.
We take for granted our belief that it is dangerous to walk late at night in big cities. If our belief is a sound one, our assumption is sound.
If our belief is not sound, our assumption is not sound. Beliefs, and hence assumptions, can be unjustified or justified, depending upon whether we do or do not have good reasons for them.
I got up to let the cat in.
We humans naturally and regularly use our beliefs as assumptions and make inferences based on those assumptions. We must do so to make sense of where we are, what we are about, and what is happening.
Assumptions and inferences permeate our lives precisely because we cannot act without them. We make judgments, form interpretations, and come to conclusions based on the beliefs we have formed. If you put humans in any situation, they start to give it some meaning or other.
People automatically make inferences to gain a basis for understanding and action. So quickly and automatically do we make inferences that we do not, without training, notice them as inferences. We see dark clouds and infer rain.
We hear the door slam and infer that someone has arrived. We see a frowning face and infer that the person is upset. · What Price Ethics and Can You Aff or d Not to Pa y? Intr o to Critical Reasoning Phil Evangel Univ ersity Pr ofessor Douglas Olena Cha pter 2 V alues & Ethics • Value Assumptions • These assumptions are important for the critical schwenkreis.com · Critical thinking is a habit of mind characterized by the comprehensive exploration of issues, ideas, artifacts, and events before accepting or formulating an opinion or conclusion.
Framing Language This rubric is designed to be transdisciplinary, reflecting the recognition that success in all disciplines requires habits o f inquiry and schwenkreis.com /default/files/schwenkreis.com · 5 Questions to Improve Your Critical Thinking Skills [Part 1] Value assumptions occur when the communicator demonstrates a relative preference for one value over another.
For instance, an [email protected]/5-questions-to-improve-your-critical. Chapter 6 - Value/Descriptive Assumptions. STUDY. PLAY. Values of Critical Thinkers. Autonomy Curiosity Reasonableness.
Keep thinking about the GAP between the conclusion and reasons 2. Look for UNSTATED IDEAS that support reasons Critical Reasoning Modules. 39 terms. Argument Powerpoints. OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR. "Critical thinking is thinking that assesses itself" (Center for Critical Thinking, b).
"Critical thinking is the ability to think about one's thinking in such a way as 1. To recognize its strengths and weaknesses and, as a result, schwenkreis.com://schwenkreis.com · Critical thinkers rigorously question ideas and assumptions rather than accepting them at face value.
They will always seek to determine whether the ideas, arguments and findings represent the entire picture and are open to finding that they do not. improving your critical thinking skills takes persistence and practice. a schwenkreis.com